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Some Basic Information about Criminal Law According to criminal law, when offenses are committed that are detrimental to the society, these are labelled as crimes. It is expressed in common law jurisdiction, that a legal concern is committed when a crime disturbs the peace of people and society. Offenders of peace of the sovereign will be prosecuted by the government officials who are the agents of the sovereign. Under criminal law, the plaintiff refers to, in practical terms, as the monarch or the people. Deterrence and punishment are the major objectives of criminal law, while civil law is individual compensation. A criminal offence has two particular elements and these are the physical act or the actus reur or guilty act and the requisite mental state of which the act is done or mens rea or guilty mind. As an example in a murder case, the actus reus is the unlawful killing of the person, while the mens rea is the intention or malice to kill or cause grave injury to the person. Under criminal law, defendents would detail their defences in order to lessen or negate their criminal responsibility, and it is this law also that will specify the punishment to be inflicted. Criminal will not require a victim or a victim’s consent in order to prosecute the offender. Be aware that there is criminal prosecution over objections of the victim, and nor will the consent of the victim becomes a defence in crimes. In the common and civil law traditions, criminal law in most jurisdictions is divided into two areas. One is that to address the violations of criminal law, what regulates the process is the criminal procedure. The second is the definition of and punishments of the various crimes which the substantive criminal law will detail out.
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Crimes from civil wrongs such as tort or breach of contract are distinguished under criminal law. To regulate the behaviour of individuals and groups in relation to the norms of society at large, criminal law is seen to function this, while civil law is mainly directed at the relationships between private individuals and their rights and obligations based on the law. It was not until the late nineteenth century that the legal systems in the past underwent a definition between civil and criminal law. In many U.S. law schools, the English common criminal law of 1750 is the basic course in criminal law.
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There are several types of criminal law and these are arrests and searches, drug crimes, juvenile law, drunk driving, parole, probation, pardons, violent crimes, white collar crimes and military law. The other term for criminal law is penal law, a term used to refer to various rule bodies in distinct jurisdictions.